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Ngamagama alula, iidayimani ezikhulileyo zebhabhi ziidayimani ezenziwe ngabantu endaweni yokumbiwa emhlabeni. Ukuba ilula kangako, unokuzibuza ukuba kutheni inqaku lilonke lingezantsi kwesi sivakalisi. Ubunzima buvela kwinto yokuba amagama amaninzi ahlukeneyo asetyenziselwe ukuchaza iidayimani ezikhule ngeelebhu kunye nabazala babo, kwaye ayinguye wonke umntu osebenzisa la magama ngendlela efanayo. Ke, masiqale ngesigama.

Yokwenziwa. Ukuqonda eli gama ngokuchanekileyo sisitshixo esivula lo mbuzo uphela. Izinto zokwenziwa zinokuthetha into eyenziweyo okanye eyinyani. Izinto zokwenziwa zinokuthetha ukuba zenziwe ngumntu, zikhutshiwe, zingeyonyani, okanye zilingise. Kodwa, kule meko, sithetha ukuthini xa sisithi "idayimani eyenziweyo"?

Kwihlabathi le-gemological, i-synthetic ligama lobuchwephesha. Xa uthetha ngobuchwephesha, amatye okwenziwa ziikristale ezenziwe ngabantu ezinesakhiwo esinye seekristale kunye nokwenziwa kweekhemikhali njengegugu elithile elenziweyo. Ke ngoko, "idayimani eyenziweyo" inesakhiwo esifanayo sekristale kunye nokwenziwa kweekhemikhali njengedayimane yendalo. Okufanayo akunakuthethwa ngezinto ezininzi zokulinganisa okanye zeentsomi ezihlala zichazwa ngokungachanekanga njengeedayimani zokwenziwa. Oku kuchazwa gwenxa kuye kwabhidisa kakhulu ukuba igama elithi “synthetic” lithetha ntoni, yiyo loo nto uninzi lwabavelisi beedayimani ezenziwe ngabantu bekhetha igama elithi “ilebhu ekhulile” kune “synthetic.”

Ukuze ukuqonde oku ngokupheleleyo, kuyanceda ukuqonda kancinci malunga nokuba zenziwe njani iidayimani zebhabhi. Zimbini iindlela zokukhulisa idayimani enye. Eyokuqala neyindala yindlela yoXinzelelo oluPhezulu yoPhezulu (HPHT). Le nkqubo iqala ngembewu yezixhobo zedayimane kwaye ikhule idayimane epheleleyo njengoko indalo isenza phantsi koxinzelelo oluphezulu kakhulu kunye nobushushu.

Eyona ndlela intsha yokukhulisa iidayimani zokwenziwa bubuchule beChemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). Kwinkqubo ye-CVD, igumbi ligcwele umphunga otyebileyo wekhabhoni. Ii-athomu zekhabhoni zitsalwe kuyo yonke igesi zaze zafakwa kwisiciko sedayimani yekristale emisela ulwakhiwo lwekristale njengoko ilitye elinqabileyo likhula ngomaleko ungqimba. Unokufunda ngakumbi malunga zenziwa njani iidayimani zelebhu ezenziwa kwinqaku lethu eliphambili kwiindlela ezahlukeneyo. Ukuthatha okubalulekileyo okwangoku kukuba zombini ezi nkqubo ziitekhnoloji ezihambele phambili ezivelisa iikristali ezinesakhiwo esifanayo semichiza kunye neepropathi ezibonakalayo njengedayimani yendalo. Ngoku, makhe sithelekise iidayimani ezikhulileyo zelebhu kunye nezinye zegugu onokuba weva ngazo.

IiLebhu eziDala kwiDayimane xa kuthelekiswa neeDimimants zokulinganisa

Xa into yokwenziwa ingeyonto eyenziweyo? Impendulo kuxa ifana. Izifaniso zizinto ezixabisekileyo ezijongeka njengeyokwenene, indalo yendalo kodwa eneneni zizezinye izinto. Ke, isafire ecacileyo okanye emhlophe inokuba yidayimani efana nayo kuba ijongeka njengedayimane. Isafire emhlophe inokuba yeyendalo okanye, nantsi iqhinga, isafire eyenziweyo. Isitshixo sokuqonda umba ofanayo ayisiyiyo gem eyenziwe ngayo (yendalo vs yokwenziwa), kodwa yinto engena endaweni ebonakala ngathi yenye gem. Ke, sinokuthi isafire emhlophe eyenziwe ngumntu "sisafire eyenziweyo" okanye inokusetyenziswa njenge "idayimani efana nayo," kodwa ayizukubalula ukuthi "yidayimani yokwenziwa" kuba ayenzi zinemichiza efanayo nedayimani.

Isafire emhlophe, ethengisiweyo kunye nokuvezwa njengesafire emhlophe, yisafire. Kodwa, ukuba isetyenziswa endaweni yedayimane, iyafana nedayimane. Amatye afanayo, kwakhona, azama ukulinganisa enye into, kwaye ukuba azichazwanga ngokucacileyo njengezifaniso zithathwa njengezinkohliso. Isafire emhlophe ayisiyo, ngendalo, ayiyonyani (enyanisweni iyigugu elihle kwaye elixabiseke kakhulu). Kodwa ukuba ithengiswa njengedayimani, iba yinkohliso. Uninzi lwezixhobo ezifanayo zizama ukulinganisa iidayimani, kodwa kukwakho ukufana kwamanye amatye anqabileyo (isafire, irubhi, njl.

Nazi ezinye zeempawu zedayimani ezaziwa kakhulu.

  • I-Synthetic Rutile yaziswa ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yoo-1940 kwaye yayisetyenziswa njengedayimani yokuqala.
  • Okulandelayo kumdlalo ofana nqwa wedayimani owenziwe ngumntu yiStrontium Titanate. Le nto iye yaziwa njengedayimani ethandwayo kwii-1950s.
  • Ii-1960s zazisa ukukhula kwezifaniso ezibini: iYttrium Aluminium Garnet (YAG) kunye neGadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG). Zombini zenziwe ngokufana kwedayimane. Kubalulekile ukuphindaphinda apha ngenxa yokuba imathiriyeli inokusetyenziswa njenge-simulant yedayimane ayenzi ukuba ibe yi "fake" okanye into embi. I-YAG, umzekelo, yikristale eluncedo kakhulu elele entliziyweni yethu i-laser welder.
  • Eyona idayimani ithandwayo ifana ngoku kude kube ngoku yiCubic Zirconia (CZ). Kuyabiza ukuvelisa kwaye kukhazimla kakhulu ngokuqaqambileyo. Umzekelo omkhulu welitye eliyigugu elilinganayo nedayimane. Ii-CZ zihlala zihlala, ngempazamo, zibizwa ngokuba ziidayimani zokwenziwa.
  • I-synthetic Moissanite nayo idala ukudideka. Yinto eyenziwe ngumntu, into eyenziweyo enezinto ezifana nedayimani. Umzekelo, iidayimani zilunge ngakumbi ngokudlulisa ubushushu, kunye neMississanite. Oku kubalulekile kuba abavavanyi abadumileyo bedayimane basebenzisa ukusasazeka kobushushu ukuvavanya ukuba ilitye elinqabileyo liyidayimane. Nangona kunjalo, i-Moissanite inekhemikhali eyahlukileyo ngokupheleleyo kunedayimane kunye neempawu ezibonakalayo zamehlo. Umzekelo, i-Moissanite iphinda-phinde ikhanye xa idayimani ingatshatanga.

Ukusukela kuvavanyo lweMoissanite njengedayimane (ngenxa yokusasazeka kobushushu bayo), abantu bacinga ukuba yidayimani okanye idayimane eyenziweyo. Nangona kunjalo, kuba ayinayo i-crystal structure okanye i-chemical composition of diamond, ayiyiyo idayimane yokwenziwa. I-Moissanite yidayimani efanayo.

Inokucaca okwangoku ukuba kutheni igama elithi "synthetic" lidideka ngolu hlobo. NgeMoissanite sinobuncwane bokwakheka obukhangeleka kwaye busebenza ngokungathi yidayimani kodwa akufuneki kubhekiselwe kubo njenge “dayimani eyenziweyo.” Ngenxa yoku, kunye nolona shishino lwezacholo, sihlala sisebenzisa igama elithi "ilebhu ekhulile yedayimani" ukubhekisa kwidayimani yokwenyani yokwabelana ekwabelana ngeempawu ezifanayo zedayimani yendalo, kwaye sikholisa ukuliphepha igama elithi "zokwenziwa idayimani ”unikwe ukuba ingadala ukudideka okungakanani.

Kukho enye idayimani efana nayo eyenza ukudideka okuninzi. I-Diamond camera Cubic Zirconia (CZ) zexabiso ziveliswa kusetyenziswa ubuchwepheshe obufanayo beChemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) obusetyenziselwa ukuvelisa iidayimani ezikhule zelebhu. Nge-CZs ezifakwe idayimane, umaleko omncinci kakhulu wezinto zedayimani zokwenziwa wongezwa ngaphezulu kwe-CZ. Amasuntswana edayimane e-nanocrystalline aphakathi kwama-30 ukuya kuma-50 ubukhulu benanometer. Imalunga nama-30 ukuya kuma-50 eeathom ubukhulu okanye 0,00003mm. Okanye, ukuba kunokuthiwa, ibhityile kakhulu. I-CVD yedayimani egutyungelwe yiCubic Zirconia ayizizo dayimani zokwenziwa. Zizukisiwe iimodeli zedayimani yeCubic Zirconia kuphela. Abanawo ubulukhuni obufanayo okanye ubume bekristale bedayimane. Njengezinye iiglasi zamehlo, i-CVD yedayimani egutyungelwe yiCubic Zirconia ineengubo zedayimani ebhityileyo kakhulu. Nangona kunjalo, oku akubathinteli abanye abathengisi abanganyanisekanga ekubabizeni ngeedayimane zokwenziwa. Ngoku, uyazi ngcono.

IiLebhu eziDala kwiDayimane xa kuthelekiswa neeDayimane zeNdalo

Ke, ngoku ekubeni sisazi ukuba zeziphi iilebhu ezikhule ngedayimani ezingekho, lixesha lokuba uthethe malunga nokuba ziyintoni na. Ngaba iilebhu ezikhulileyo zebhabhi zithelekiswa njani needayimane zendalo? Impendulo isekwe kwinkcazo yokwenziwa. Njengoko sifundile, idayimani eyenziweyo inekristale efanayo kunye nokwenziwa kweekhemikhali njengedayimane yendalo. Ke ngoko, zijongeka njengelitye elinqabileyo lendalo. Ziyakhazimla ngokufanayo. Banobunzima obufanayo. Ngasecaleni, iilebhu ezikhule ngedayimani zikhangeleka zisebenza njengedayimane zendalo.

Umahluko phakathi kwendalo kunye nelebhu ekhule idayimani isuka kwindlela eyenziwe ngayo. Iidayimane ezikhulileyo zelebhu zenziwe ngabantu kwilebhu ngelixa iidayimani zendalo zenziwe emhlabeni. Indalo ayiyondawo elawulwayo, engenabungozi, kwaye iinkqubo zendalo ziyahluka kakhulu. Ke ngoko, iziphumo azigqibelelanga. Zininzi iindidi zokufakwa kunye neempawu zokwakheka kwendalo ezenzileyo.

Ilebhu esele ikhulile, kwelinye icala, yenziwa kwindawo elawulwayo. Banempawu zenkqubo elawulwayo engafaniyo nendalo. Ngapha koko, iinzame zabantu azifezekanga kwaye bashiya iziphene zabo kunye nemikhombandlela yokuba abantu benze ilitye elinikiweyo. Iindidi zokufakwa kunye nokwahluka okungacacanga kubume bekristale yenye yeendlela eziphambili zokwahlula phakathi kwelebhu ekhulile nedayimani yendalo. Unokufunda ngakumbi malunga indlela yokuxelela ukuba idayimane ikhulile ilebhu okanye yendalo kwinqaku lethu eliphambili ngesihloko.

FJU Udidi: Ilebhu eziDala zeLebhu


Ixesha Post: Apr-08-2021